Tag Archives: c-sharp

C# || Backspace String Compare – How To Backspace Compare Two Strings Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to backspace compare two strings using C#.


1. Backspace Compare – Problem Statement

Given two strings s and t, return true if they are equal when both are typed into empty text editors. ‘#’ means a backspace character.

Note that after backspacing an empty text, the text will continue empty.

Example 1:


Input: s = "ab#c", t = "ad#c"
Output: true
Explanation: Both s and t become "ac".

Example 2:


Input: s = "ab##", t = "c#d#"
Output: true
Explanation: Both s and t become "".

Example 3:


Input: s = "a#c", t = "b"
Output: false
Explanation: s becomes "c" while t becomes "b".


2. Backspace Compare – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to backspace compare two strings.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


true
true
false

C# || How To Design Underground System To Keep Track Of Customer Travel Times Between Stations Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to design an underground system to keep track of customer travel times between different stations using C#.


1. Underground System – Problem Statement

An underground railway system is keeping track of customer travel times between different stations. They are using this data to calculate the average time it takes to travel from one station to another.

Implement the UndergroundSystem class:

  • void checkIn(int id, string stationName, int t)
    • A customer with a card ID equal to id, checks in at the station stationName at time t.
    • A customer can only be checked into one place at a time.
  • void checkOut(int id, string stationName, int t)
    • A customer with a card ID equal to id, checks out from the station stationName at time t.
  • double getAverageTime(string startStation, string endStation)
    • Returns the average time it takes to travel from startStation to endStation.
    • The average time is computed from all the previous traveling times from startStation to endStation that happened directly, meaning a check in at startStation followed by a check out from endStation.
    • The time it takes to travel from startStation to endStation may be different from the time it takes to travel from endStation to startStation.
    • There will be at least one customer that has traveled from startStation to endStation before getAverageTime is called.

You may assume all calls to the checkIn and checkOut methods are consistent. If a customer checks in at time t1 then checks out at time t2, then t1 < t2. All events happen in chronological order.

Example 1:


Input
["UndergroundSystem","checkIn","checkIn","checkIn","checkOut","checkOut","checkOut","getAverageTime","getAverageTime","checkIn","getAverageTime","checkOut","getAverageTime"]
[[],[45,"Leyton",3],[32,"Paradise",8],[27,"Leyton",10],[45,"Waterloo",15],[27,"Waterloo",20],[32,"Cambridge",22],["Paradise","Cambridge"],["Leyton","Waterloo"],[10,"Leyton",24],["Leyton","Waterloo"],[10,"Waterloo",38],["Leyton","Waterloo"]]

Output
[null,null,null,null,null,null,null,14.00000,11.00000,null,11.00000,null,12.00000]

Explanation
UndergroundSystem undergroundSystem = new UndergroundSystem();
undergroundSystem.checkIn(45, "Leyton", 3);
undergroundSystem.checkIn(32, "Paradise", 8);
undergroundSystem.checkIn(27, "Leyton", 10);
undergroundSystem.checkOut(45, "Waterloo", 15); // Customer 45 "Leyton" -> "Waterloo" in 15-3 = 12
undergroundSystem.checkOut(27, "Waterloo", 20); // Customer 27 "Leyton" -> "Waterloo" in 20-10 = 10
undergroundSystem.checkOut(32, "Cambridge", 22); // Customer 32 "Paradise" -> "Cambridge" in 22-8 = 14
undergroundSystem.getAverageTime("Paradise", "Cambridge"); // return 14.00000. One trip "Paradise" -> "Cambridge", (14) / 1 = 14
undergroundSystem.getAverageTime("Leyton", "Waterloo"); // return 11.00000. Two trips "Leyton" -> "Waterloo", (10 + 12) / 2 = 11
undergroundSystem.checkIn(10, "Leyton", 24);
undergroundSystem.getAverageTime("Leyton", "Waterloo"); // return 11.00000
undergroundSystem.checkOut(10, "Waterloo", 38); // Customer 10 "Leyton" -> "Waterloo" in 38-24 = 14
undergroundSystem.getAverageTime("Leyton", "Waterloo"); // return 12.00000. Three trips "Leyton" -> "Waterloo", (10 + 12 + 14) / 3 = 12

Example 2:


Input
["UndergroundSystem","checkIn","checkOut","getAverageTime","checkIn","checkOut","getAverageTime","checkIn","checkOut","getAverageTime"]
[[],[10,"Leyton",3],[10,"Paradise",8],["Leyton","Paradise"],[5,"Leyton",10],[5,"Paradise",16],["Leyton","Paradise"],[2,"Leyton",21],[2,"Paradise",30],["Leyton","Paradise"]]

Output
[null,null,null,5.00000,null,null,5.50000,null,null,6.66667]

Explanation
UndergroundSystem undergroundSystem = new UndergroundSystem();
undergroundSystem.checkIn(10, "Leyton", 3);
undergroundSystem.checkOut(10, "Paradise", 8); // Customer 10 "Leyton" -> "Paradise" in 8-3 = 5
undergroundSystem.getAverageTime("Leyton", "Paradise"); // return 5.00000, (5) / 1 = 5
undergroundSystem.checkIn(5, "Leyton", 10);
undergroundSystem.checkOut(5, "Paradise", 16); // Customer 5 "Leyton" -> "Paradise" in 16-10 = 6
undergroundSystem.getAverageTime("Leyton", "Paradise"); // return 5.50000, (5 + 6) / 2 = 5.5
undergroundSystem.checkIn(2, "Leyton", 21);
undergroundSystem.checkOut(2, "Paradise", 30); // Customer 2 "Leyton" -> "Paradise" in 30-21 = 9
undergroundSystem.getAverageTime("Leyton", "Paradise"); // return 6.66667, (5 + 6 + 9) / 3 = 6.66667


2. Underground System – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to design an underground system to keep track of customer travel times between different stations.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


[null,null,null,null,null,null,null,14.00000,11.00000,null,11.00000,null,12.00000]
[null,null,null,5.00000,null,null,5.50000,null,null,6.66667]

C# || How To Add Simple Object Change Tracking To Track Changes Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to add simple object change tracking to track changes made to an object using C#.

Contents

1. Overview
2. Basic Usage
3. Accept Changes
4. Reject Changes
5. Ignore Tracking For Property
6. Notify Property Changed
7. Utils Namespace
8. More Examples


1. Overview

The following is a simple abstract change tracker class which implements INotifyPropertyChanged and IRevertibleChangeTracking which provides functionality to track object changes, and to ‘accept’ or ‘revert’ changes.

To use this class, simply inherit the abstract class, and your all set!

Note: Don’t forget to include the ‘Utils Namespace‘ before running the examples!


2. Basic Usage

The example below demonstrates the use of ChangeTracker.BeginChanges to start tracking object changes, as well as ChangeTracker.GetChanges to get the changes made to an object.

The following example demonstrates the basic usage of adding change tracking to an object, and making and getting changes.


3. Accept Changes

The example below demonstrates the use of ChangeTracker.AcceptChanges to accept modification changes made to an object.

This function commits all the changes made to the object since either ChangeTracker.BeginChanges was called, or since ChangeTracker.AcceptChanges was last called.

When the accept function is called, all the changes made to the object up to that point will be marked as the current ‘source of truth’ for change tracking.


4. Reject Changes

The example below demonstrates the use of ChangeTracker.RejectChanges to reject modification changes made to an object.

This function rejects all the changes made to the object since either ChangeTracker.BeginChanges was called, or since ChangeTracker.AcceptChanges was last called.

When the reject function is called, all the changes made to the object up to that point reverts back to the objects state before modifications initially began or modifications was last accepted.


5. Ignore Tracking For Property

The example below demonstrates the use of ChangeTracker.ChangeTrackerIgnore attribute to mark a specific property to be ignored from change tracking.


6. Notify Property Changed

The example below demonstrates the use of ChangeTracker.NotifyPropertyChanged to fire the PropertyChanged event notifying that the specified property value has changed.

In the class declaration, simply add ChangeTracker.NotifyPropertyChanged to the properties you wish to notify changes, and add a PropertyChanged event handler function to receive the notifications.


7. Utils Namespace

The following is the Utils Namespace. Include this in your project to start using!


8. More Examples

Below are more examples demonstrating the use of the ‘Utils‘ Namespace. Don’t forget to include the module when running the examples!

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

C# || Remove Linked List Elements – How To Remove All Target Linked List Elements Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to remove all target linked list elements using C#.


1. Remove Elements – Problem Statement

Given the head of a linked list and an integer val, remove all the nodes of the linked list that has Node.val == val, and return the new head.

Example 1:

Example 1


Input: head = [1,2,6,3,4,5,6], val = 6
Output: [1,2,3,4,5]

Example 2:


Input: head = [], val = 1
Output: []

Example 3:


Input: head = [7,7,7,7], val = 7
Output: []


2. Remove Elements – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to remove all target linked list elements.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


[1,2,3,4,5]
[]
[]

C# || How To Compare Version Numbers Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to compare version numbers using C#.


1. Compare Version – Problem Statement

Given two version numbers, version1 and version2, compare them.

Version numbers consist of one or more revisions joined by a dot ‘.’. Each revision consists of digits and may contain leading zeros. Every revision contains at least one character. Revisions are 0-indexed from left to right, with the leftmost revision being revision 0, the next revision being revision 1, and so on. For example 2.5.33 and 0.1 are valid version numbers.

To compare version numbers, compare their revisions in left-to-right order. Revisions are compared using their integer value ignoring any leading zeros. This means that revisions 1 and 001 are considered equal. If a version number does not specify a revision at an index, then treat the revision as 0. For example, version 1.0 is less than version 1.1 because their revision 0s are the same, but their revision 1s are 0 and 1 respectively, and 0 < 1.

Return the following:

  • If version1 < version2, return -1.
  • If version1 > version2, return 1.
  • Otherwise, return 0.

Example 1:


Input: version1 = "1.01", version2 = "1.001"
Output: 0
Explanation: Ignoring leading zeroes, both "01" and "001" represent the same integer "1".

Example 2:


Input: version1 = "1.0", version2 = "1.0.0"
Output: 0
Explanation: version1 does not specify revision 2, which means it is treated as "0".

Example 3:


Input: version1 = "0.1", version2 = "1.1"
Output: -1
Explanation: version1's revision 0 is "0", while version2's revision 0 is "1". 0 < 1, so version1 < version2.


2. Compare Version – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to compare version numbers.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


0
0
-1

C# || How To Find The Difference Between Two Strings Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to find the difference between two strings using C#.


1. Find The Difference – Problem Statement

You are given two strings s and t.

String t is generated by random shuffling string s and then add one more letter at a random position.

Return the letter that was added to t.

Example 1:


Input: s = "abcd", t = "abcde"
Output: "e"
Explanation: 'e' is the letter that was added.

Example 2:


Input: s = "", t = "y"
Output: "y"


2. Find The Difference – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to find the difference between two strings.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


"e"
"y"

C# || How To Get Total Sum Root To Leaf Binary Numbers In Binary Tree Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to get the total sum root to leaf binary numbers in a binary tree using C#.


1. Sum Root To Leaf – Problem Statement

You are given the root of a binary tree where each node has a value 0 or 1. Each root-to-leaf path represents a binary number starting with the most significant bit.

  • For example, if the path is 0 -> 1 -> 1 -> 0 -> 1, then this could represent 01101 in binary, which is 13.

For all leaves in the tree, consider the numbers represented by the path from the root to that leaf. Return the sum of these numbers.

The test cases are generated so that the answer fits in a 32-bits integer.

A leaf node is a node with no children.

Example 1:

Example 1


Input: root = [1,0,1,0,1,0,1]
Output: 22
Explanation: (100) + (101) + (110) + (111) = 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 = 22

Example 2:


Input: root = [0]
Output: 0


2. Sum Root To Leaf – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to get the total sum root to leaf binary numbers in a binary tree.

This solution uses Depth First Search to explore items at each level.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


22
0

C# || Jump Game III – How To Check If You Can Reach Target Value In Array Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to check if you can reach a target value in an array using C#.


1. Can Reach – Problem Statement

Given an array of non-negative integers arr, you are initially positioned at start index of the array. When you are at index i, you can jump to i + arr[i] or i – arr[i], check if you can reach to any index with value 0.

Notice that you can not jump outside of the array at any time.

Example 1:


Input: arr = [4,2,3,0,3,1,2], start = 5
Output: true
Explanation:
All possible ways to reach at index 3 with value 0 are:
index 5 -> index 4 -> index 1 -> index 3
index 5 -> index 6 -> index 4 -> index 1 -> index 3

Example 2:


Input: arr = [4,2,3,0,3,1,2], start = 0
Output: true
Explanation:
One possible way to reach at index 3 with value 0 is:
index 0 -> index 4 -> index 1 -> index 3

Example 3:


Input: arr = [3,0,2,1,2], start = 2
Output: false
Explanation: There is no way to reach at index 1 with value 0.


2. Can Reach – Solution

The following are two solutions which demonstrates how to check if you can reach a target value in an array.

The following solution uses Depth First Search when looking for the target value.

The following solution uses Breadth First Search when looking for the target value.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


true
true
false

C# || Maximum Product Subarray – How To Find Largest Product In Contiguous Subarray Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to find the largest product in a contiguous subarray using C#.


1. Max Product – Problem Statement

Given an integer array nums, find a contiguous non-empty subarray within the array that has the largest product, and return the product.

It is guaranteed that the answer will fit in a 32-bit integer.

A subarray is a contiguous subsequence of the array.

Example 1:


Input: nums = [2,3,-2,4]
Output: 6
Explanation: [2,3] has the largest product 6.

Example 2:


Input: nums = [-2,0,-1]
Output: 0
Explanation: The result cannot be 2, because [-2,-1] is not a subarray.


2. Max Product – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to find the largest product in a contiguous subarray.

This solution is inspired by Kadane’s algorithm to find the result.

The idea here is similar to the ‘Maximum Subarray‘ problem.

In this solution, we have two values:

  • The current cumulative maximum product up to current element
  • The current cumulative minimum product up to current element

Each loop iteration, these values are updated by either multiplying the new element at the current index with the existing product, or starting fresh from current index.

When a negative number is encountered, the current max and current min values are swapped, because multiplying a negative number makes a big number smaller, and multiplying a negative number makes small number bigger. So their intent is redefined by swapping.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


6
0

C# || Maximum Subarray – How To Find Largest Sum In Contiguous Subarray Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to find the largest sum in a contiguous subarray using C#.


1. Max Sub Array – Problem Statement

Given an integer array nums, find the contiguous subarray (containing at least one number) which has the largest sum and return its sum.

A subarray is a contiguous part of an array.

Example 1:


Input: nums = [-2,1,-3,4,-1,2,1,-5,4]
Output: 6
Explanation: [4,-1,2,1] has the largest sum = 6.

Example 2:


Input: nums = [1]
Output: 1

Example 3:


Input: nums = [5,4,-1,7,8]
Output: 23


2. Max Sub Array – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to find the largest sum in a contiguous subarray.

This solution uses Kadane’s algorithm to find the result.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


6
1
23

C# || String To Integer (atoi) – How To Convert String To Signed Integer Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to convert a string to 32-bit signed integer using C#.


1. My Atoi – Problem Statement

Implement the myAtoi(string s) function, which converts a string to a 32-bit signed integer (similar to C/C++’s atoi function).

The algorithm for myAtoi(string s) is as follows:

  1. Read in and ignore any leading whitespace.
  2. Check if the next character (if not already at the end of the string) is ‘-‘ or ‘+’. Read this character in if it is either. This determines if the final result is negative or positive respectively. Assume the result is positive if neither is present.
  3. Read in next the characters until the next non-digit character or the end of the input is reached. The rest of the string is ignored.
  4. Convert these digits into an integer (i.e. “123” -> 123, “0032” -> 32). If no digits were read, then the integer is 0. Change the sign as necessary (from step 2).
  5. If the integer is out of the 32-bit signed integer range [-231, 231 – 1], then clamp the integer so that it remains in the range. Specifically, integers less than -231 should be clamped to -231, and integers greater than 231 – 1 should be clamped to 231 – 1.
  6. Return the integer as the final result.

Note:

  • Only the space character ‘ ‘ is considered a whitespace character.
  • Do not ignore any characters other than the leading whitespace or the rest of the string after the digits.

Example 1:


Input: s = "42"
Output: 42
Explanation: The underlined characters are what is read in, the caret is the current reader position.
Step 1: "42" (no characters read because there is no leading whitespace)
         ^
Step 2: "42" (no characters read because there is neither a '-' nor '+')
         ^
Step 3: "42" ("42" is read in)
           ^
The parsed integer is 42.
Since 42 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is 42.

Example 2:


Input: s = "   -42"
Output: -42
Explanation:
Step 1: "   -42" (leading whitespace is read and ignored)
            ^
Step 2: "   -42" ('-' is read, so the result should be negative)
             ^
Step 3: "   -42" ("42" is read in)
               ^
The parsed integer is -42.
Since -42 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is -42.

Example 3:


Input: s = "4193 with words"
Output: 4193
Explanation:
Step 1: "4193 with words" (no characters read because there is no leading whitespace)
         ^
Step 2: "4193 with words" (no characters read because there is neither a '-' nor '+')
         ^
Step 3: "4193 with words" ("4193" is read in; reading stops because the next character is a non-digit)
            ^
The parsed integer is 4193.
Since 4193 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is 4193.

Example 4:


Input: s = "words and 987"
Output: 0
Explanation:
Step 1: "words and 987" (no characters read because there is no leading whitespace)
         ^
Step 2: "words and 987" (no characters read because there is neither a '-' nor '+')
         ^
Step 3: "words and 987" (reading stops immediately because there is a non-digit 'w')
         ^
The parsed integer is 0 because no digits were read.
Since 0 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is 0.

Example 5:


Input: s = "-91283472332"
Output: -2147483648
Explanation:
Step 1: "-91283472332" (no characters read because there is no leading whitespace)
         ^
Step 2: "-91283472332" ('-' is read, so the result should be negative)
          ^
Step 3: "-91283472332" ("91283472332" is read in)
                     ^
The parsed integer is -91283472332.
Since -91283472332 is less than the lower bound of the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is clamped to -231 = -2147483648.


2. My Atoi – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to convert a string to 32-bit signed integer.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


42
-42
4193
0
-2147483648

C# || Maximal Rectangle – How To Find Largest Rectangle Area Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to find the largest rectangle area containing only 1’s using C#.


1. Maximal Rectangle – Problem Statement

Given a rows x cols binary matrix filled with 0‘s and 1‘s, find the largest rectangle containing only 1‘s and return its area.

Example 1:

Example 1


Input: matrix = [["1","0","1","0","0"],["1","0","1","1","1"],["1","1","1","1","1"],["1","0","0","1","0"]]
Output: 6
Explanation: The maximal rectangle is shown in the above picture.

Example 2:


Input: matrix = []
Output: 0

Example 3:


Input: matrix = [["0"]]
Output: 0

Example 4:


Input: matrix = [["1"]]
Output: 1

Example 5:


Input: matrix = [["0","0"]]
Output: 0


2. Maximal Rectangle – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to find the largest rectangle area containing only 1’s.

This solution uses the monotonic stack approach.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


6
0
0
1
0

C# || How To Find The Largest Component Size By Common Factor Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to find the largest component size by common factor using C#.


1. Largest Component Size – Problem Statement

You are given an integer array of unique positive integers nums. Consider the following graph:

  • There are nums.length nodes, labeled nums[0] to nums[nums.length – 1],
  • There is an undirected edge between nums[i] and nums[j] if nums[i] and nums[j] share a common factor greater than 1.

Return the size of the largest connected component in the graph.

Example 1:

Example 1


Input: nums = [4,6,15,35]
Output: 4

Example 2:

Example 2


Input: nums = [20,50,9,63]
Output: 2

Example 3:

Example 3


Input: nums = [2,3,6,7,4,12,21,39]
Output: 8


2. Largest Component Size – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to find the largest component size by common factor.

The following solution uses a union find set to group connections together.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


4
2
8

C# || Accounts Merge – How To Merge A List Of Emails Using C#

The following is a module with functions which demonstrates how to merge a list of emails using C#.


1. Accounts Merge – Problem Statement

Given a list of accounts where each element accounts[i] is a list of strings, where the first element accounts[i][0] is a name, and the rest of the elements are emails representing emails of the account.

Now, we would like to merge these accounts. Two accounts definitely belong to the same person if there is some common email to both accounts. Note that even if two accounts have the same name, they may belong to different people as people could have the same name. A person can have any number of accounts initially, but all of their accounts definitely have the same name.

After merging the accounts, return the accounts in the following format: the first element of each account is the name, and the rest of the elements are emails in sorted order. The accounts themselves can be returned in any order.

Example 1:


Input: accounts = [["John","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["John","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Mary","[email protected]"],["John","[email protected]"]]
Output: [["John","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Mary","[email protected]"],["John","[email protected]"]]
Explanation:
The first and second John's are the same person as they have the common email "[email protected]".
The third John and Mary are different people as none of their email addresses are used by other accounts.
We could return these lists in any order, for example the answer [['Mary', '[email protected]'], ['John', '[email protected]'],
['John', '[email protected]', '[email protected]', '[email protected]']] would still be accepted.

Example 2:


Input: accounts = [["Gabe","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Kevin","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Ethan","Ethan5[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Hanzo","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Fern","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"]]
Output: [["Ethan","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Gabe","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Hanzo","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Kevin","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Fern","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"]]


2. Accounts Merge – Solution

The following is a solution which demonstrates how to merge a list of emails.

The following solution uses a union find set to group accounts with matching emails together.

QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output for the example cases:


[["John","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Mary","[email protected]"],["John","[email protected]"]]
[["Gabe","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Kevin","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Ethan","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Hanzo","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"],["Fern","[email protected]","[email protected]","[email protected]"]]