Monthly Archives: January 2012

C++ || Input/Output – Find The Average of The Numbers Contained In a Text File Using an Array/Bubble Sort

This program highlights more practice using text files and arrays. This program is very similar to one which was previously discussed on this site, but unlike that program, this implementation omits the highest/lowest values which are found within the array via a sort.

The previously discussed program works almost as well as the current implementation, but where it fails is when the data which is being entered into the program contains multiple values of the same type. For example, using the previously discussed method to obtain the average by omitting the highest/lowest entries found within an array, if the array contained the numbers:

1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1

The previous implementation would mark 1 as being the lowest number (which is correct) and it would mark 3 as being the highest number (which is also correct). The area where it fails is when it omits the highest and lowest scores found within the array. The program will skip over ALL of the numbers contained within the array which equal to 1 and 3, thus resulting in the program obtaining the wrong answer.

To illustrate, before the previous program computes its adjusted average scores, it will not only omit just 1 and 3 from the array, but it will also omit all of the 1’s and 3’s from the list, resulting in our array looking like this:

2, 2, 2

When you are finding the average of a list of numbers by omitting the highest/lowest scores, you don’t want to omit ALL of the values which may equal said numbers, but merely just the highest (last element in the array) and lowest (first element in the array) scores.

So if the previous implementation has subtle issues, why is it on this site? The previous program illustrates very well the process of finding the highest/lowest integers found within an array. It also works flawlessly for data in which there is non repeating values found within a list (i.e 1,2,3,4,5,23,6). So if you know you are reading in from a file in which there are non repeating values, the previous implementation works well. Often times though, developers do not know what type of data the incoming files will contain, so this current implementation is a better way to go, especially if it is not known exactly how many numbers are contained within a file.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Fstream
Ifstream
Ofstream
Working With Files
While Loops
For Loops
Bubble Sort
Basic Math - Finding The Average

The data file that is used in this example can be downloaded here.

Note: In order to read in the data .txt file, you need to save the .txt file in the same directory (or folder) as your .cpp file is saved in. If you are using Visual C++, this directory will be located in

Documents > Visual Studio 2010 > Projects > [Your project name] > [Your project name]

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output
(Remember to include the input file)

The numbers countained in the input file are: 12, 45, 23, 46, 11, -5, 23, 33, 50, 17, 13, 25, 15, 50,
The highest and lowest numbers contained in the file are:
Highest: 50
Lowest: -5

The average of the 14 numbers contained in the file is: 25.5714
The average of the 14 numbers contained in the file omitting the highest and lowest scores is: 26.0833

C++ || Random Number Guessing Game Using Srand, Rand, & Do/While Loop

This is a simple guessing game, which demonstrates the use of srand and rand to generate random numbers. This program first prompts the user to enter a number between 1 and 1000. Using if/else statements, the program will then check to see if the user inputted number is higher/lower than the pre defined random number which is generated by the program. If the user makes a wrong guess, the program will re prompt the user to enter in a new number, where they will have a chance to enter in a new guess. Once the user finally guesses the correct answer, using a do/while loop, the program will ask if they want to play again. If the user selects yes, the game will start over, and a new random number will be generated. If the user selects no, the game will end.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Srand
Rand
Modulus
Ctime
Do/While Loop

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output:

I'm thinking of a number between 1 and 1000. Go ahead and make your first guess.

67
Too low! Think higher.
500
Too low! Think higher.
700
Too high! Think lower.
600
Too low! Think higher.
680
Too high! Think lower.
650
Too low! Think higher.
660
Too low! Think higher.
670
You got it, and it only took you 8 trys!
Would you like to play again (y/n)? y

------------------------------------------------------------

Make a guess (between 1-1000):

500
Too low! Think higher.
600
Too low! Think higher.
700
Too low! Think higher.
900
Too high! Think lower.
800
Too high! Think lower.
760
Too high! Think lower.
740
Too high! Think lower.
720
Too high! Think lower.
700
Too low! Think higher.
710
Too high! Think lower.
705
Too high! Think lower.
701
Too low! Think higher.
702
Too low! Think higher.
703
Too low! Think higher.
704
You got it, and it only took you 15 trys!
Would you like to play again (y/n)? n

Thanks for playing!!

C++ || Struct – Add One Day To Today’s Date Using A Struct

This program displays more practice using the structure data type, and is very similar to another program which was previously discussed here.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Functions
Passing a Value By Reference
Integer Arrays
Structures
Constant Variables
Boolean Expressions

This program utilizes a struct, which is very similar to the class concept. This program first prompts the user to enter the current date in mm/dd/yyyy format. Upon obtaining the date from the user, the program then uses a struct implementation to simply add one day to the date which was entered by the user. If the day that was entered into the program by the user falls on the end of the month, the program will”roll over” the incremented date into the next month. If the user enters 12/31/2012, the program will “roll over” the incremented date into the next calendar year.

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output:
Note: The code was compiled 6 separate times to display the different outputs its able to produce

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 1/18/2012
The next day is 1/19/2012
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 7/31/2012
The next day is 8/1/2012
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 2/28/2012
The next day is 3/1/2012
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 13/5/2012
Invalid input...
Program exiting....
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 2/31/2012
Invalid day input - There is no such date for the selected month.
Program exiting....
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 12/31/2012
The next day is 1/1/2013

C++ || Searching An Integer Array For A Target Value

Here is another actual homework assignment which was presented in an intro to programming class.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Integer Arrays
For Loops
Functions
If/Else Statements

This is a small and simple program which demonstrates how to search for a target value that is stored in an integer array. This program prompts the user to enter five values into an int array. After the user has entered all the values, it displays a prompt asking the user for a search value. Once it has the search value, the program will search through the array looking for the target; wherever the value is found, it will display the index location. After it displays all the locations where the value is found, it will display the total number of occurrences the search value was found within the array.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output:
Note: The code was compiled 3 separate times to display the different outputs its able to produce

Please enter 5 integer values:
#1: 12
#2: 12
#3: 12
#4: 12
#5: 12
Please enter a search value: 12

12 was found at array index #0
12 was found at array index #1
12 was found at array index #2
12 was found at array index #3
12 was found at array index #4

The total occurrences of value 12 within the array is: 5
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter 5 integer values:
#1: 12
#2: 87
#3: 45
#4: 87
#5: 33
Please enter a search value: 87

87 was found at array index #1
87 was found at array index #3

The total occurrences of value 87 within the array is: 2
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter 5 interger values:
#1: 54
#2: 67
#3: 98
#4: 45
#5: 98
Please enter a search value: 123

The total occurrences of value 123 within the array is: 0

C++ || Find The Day Of The Week You Were Born Using Functions, String, Modulus, If/Else, & Switch

This program displays more practice using functions, modulus, if and switch statements.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Functions
Strings
Modulus
If/Else Statements
Switch Statements
Knowledge of Leap Years
A Calendar

This program prompts the user for their name, date of birth (month, day, year), and then displays information back to them via cout. Once the program obtains selected information from the user, it will use simple math to determine the day of the week in which the user was born, and determine the day of the week their current birthday will be for the current calendar year. The program will also display to the user their current age, along with re-displaying their name back to them.

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output:
Note: The code was compiled five separate times to display the different outputs its able to produce

Please enter your name: MyProgrammingNotes
Please enter the month in which you were born (between 1 and 12): 1
Please enter the day you were born (between 1 and 31): 1
Please enter the year you were born (between 1900 and 2099): 2012

Hello MyProgrammingNotes. Here are some facts about you!
You were born January 1 2012
Your birth took place on a Sunday
This year your birthday will take place on a Sunday
You currently are, or will be 0 years old this year!
---------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter your name: Name
Please enter the month in which you were born (between 1 and 12): 4
Please enter the day you were born (between 1 and 31): 2
Please enter the year you were born (between 1900 and 2099): 1957

Hello Name. Here are some facts about you!
You were born April 2 1957
Your birth took place on a Tuesday
This year your birthday will take place on a Monday
You currently are, or will be 55 years old this year!
---------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter your name: Name
Please enter the month in which you were born (between 1 and 12): 5
Please enter the day you were born (between 1 and 31): 7
Please enter the year you were born (between 1900 and 2099): 1999

Hello Name. Here are some facts about you!
You were born May 7 1999
Your birth took place on a Friday
This year your birthday will take place on a Monday
You currently are, or will be 13 years old this year!
---------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter your name: Name
Please enter the month in which you were born (between 1 and 12): 8
Please enter the day you were born (between 1 and 31): 4
Please enter the year you were born (between 1900 and 2099): 1983

Hello Name. Here are some facts about you!
You were born August 4 1983
Your birth took place on a Thursday
This year your birthday will take place on a Saturday
You currently are, or will be 29 years old this year!
---------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter your name: Name
Please enter the month in which you were born (between 1 and 12): 6
Please enter the day you were born (between 1 and 31): 7
Please enter the year you were born (between 1900 and 2099): 2987

You have entered an invalid year. Please enter a valid year.
Press any key to continue . . .

C++ || Find The Prime, Perfect & All Known Divisors Of A Number Using A For, While & Do/While Loop

This program was designed to better understand how to use different loops which are available in C++.

This program first asks the user to enter a non negative number. After it obtains a non negative integer from the user, the program will determine if the inputted number is a prime number or not, aswell as determine if the user inputted number is a perfect number or not. After it obtains its results, the program will display to the screen if the user inputted number is prime/perfect number or not. The program will also display a list of all the possible divisors of the user inputted number via cout.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Do/While Loop
While Loop
For Loop
Modulus
Basic Math - Prime Numbers
Basic Math - Perfect Numbers
Basic Math - Divisors


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output:

Enter a number: 8128

Input number: 8128
8128 is not a prime number.
8128 is a perfect number.
Divisors of 8128 are: 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 127, 254, 508, 1016, 2032, 4064, and 8128

Do you want to input another number?(Y/N): y
------------------------------------------------------------
Enter a number: 6

Input number: 6
6 is not a prime number.
6 is a perfect number.
Divisors of 6 are: 1, 2, 3, and 6

Do you want to input another number?(Y/N): y
------------------------------------------------------------
Enter a number: 241

Input number: 241
241 is a prime number.
241 is not a perfect number.
Divisors of 241 are: 1, and 241

Do you want to input another number?(Y/N): y
------------------------------------------------------------
Enter a number: 2012

Input number: 2012
2012 is not a prime number.
2012 is not a perfect number.
Divisors of 2012 are: 1, 2, 4, 503, 1006, and 2012

Do you want to input another number?(Y/N): n
------------------------------------------------------------
Press any key to continue . . .

C++ || Whats My Name? – Using a Char Array, Strcpy, Strcat, Strcmp, & Strlen

Here is another actual homework assignment which was presented in an intro to programming class.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Character Arrays
Functions
Strcpy
Strcat
Strcmp
Strlen

This program first prompts the user to enter their name. Upon receiving that information, the program saves input into a character array of size 15. The program then asks if the user has a middle name. If they do, the user will enter a middle name. If they dont, the program proceeds to ask for a last name. Upon receiving the first, [middle], and last names, the program will use strcpy and strcat to copy/append the first, [middle], and last names into a completely new char array titled “fullname.” Lastly, if the users’ first, [middle], or last names are the same, the program will display that data to the screen via cout. The program will also display to the user the number of characters their full name contains using strlen.

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstring> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

CHAR ARRAY
Unlike integer arrays, a loop is not necessary in order to input data into a char array. This is highlighted on lines 32, 76, 79, and 125.

FUNCTIONS
Notice lines 18, 19, 69 and 119. When dealing with arrays, in order to pass variables to different functions, you need to include brackets[] letting the compiler know that you are passing an array variable. If you do not declare the functions as so, you will get a compiler error.

STRCPY/STRCAT
These functions are highlighted on lines 81-85, and 127-129. Read the comments within the code on those selected lines, they are helpful.

STRCMP
This compares two strings together to determine if they are the same. This is displayed on lines 92, 96, 100, and 136 when comparing the first, [middle], and last names together for sameness.

STRLEN
This finds the length of the current string, as noted on lines 89 and 133.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output:
Note: The code was compiled five separate times to display the different outputs its able to produce


Please enter your first name: My
Do you have a middle name?(Y/N): y
Please enter your middle name: Programming
Please enter your last name: Notes

Your full name is My Programming Notes
The total number of characters in your name is: 18
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter your first name: Programming
Do you have a middle name?(Y/N): N
Please enter your last name: Notes

Your full name is Programming Notes
The total number of characters in your name is: 16
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter your first name: Notes
Do you have a middle name?(Y/N): y
Please enter your middle name: Notes
Please enter your last name: Notes

Your full name is Notes Notes Notes
The total number of characters in your name is: 15
Your first and middle name are the same
Your middle and last name are the same
Your first and last name are the same
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter your first name: My
Do you have a middle name?(Y/N): N
Please enter your last name: My

Your full name is My My
The total number of characters in your name is: 4
Your first and last name are the same
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter your first name: My
Do you have a middle name?(Y/N): z

Please press either 'Y' or 'N'
Program exiting...

C++ || Find The Average Using an Array – Omit Highest And Lowest Scores

This page will consist of two programs which calculates the average of a specific amount of numbers using an array.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR BOTH PROGRAMS

Float Data Type
Constant Values
Arrays
For Loops
Assignment Operators
Basic Math

====== FIND THE AVERAGE USING AN ARRAY ======

The first program is fairly simple, and it was used to introduce the array concept. The program prompts the user to enter the total amount of numbers they want to find the average for, then the program displays the answer to them via cout.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

ARRAY
Notice the array declaration on line #9. The type of array being used in this program is a static array, which has the ability to store up to 100 integer elements in the array. You can change the number of elements its able to store to a higher or lower number if you wish.

FOR LOOP
Notice line 17-22 contains a for loop, which is used to actually store the data inside of the array. Without some type of loop, it is virtually impossible for the user to input data into the array; that is, unless you want to add 100 different cout statements into your code asking the user to input data. Line 21 uses the assignment operator “+=” which gives us a running total of the data that is being inputted into the array. Note the loop only stores as many elements as the user so desires, so if the user only wants to input 3 numbers into the array, the for loop will only execute 3 times.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output:

How many numbers do you want to find the average for?: 5
Enter #1 : 23
Enter #2 : 17
Enter #3 : 29
Enter #4 : 14
Enter #5 : 16
The average of the 5 numbers is 19.8


====== FIND THE AVERAGE – OMIT HIGHEST AND LOWEST SCORES ======

The second program is really practical in a real world setting, specifically when a teacher records test scores into the computer. We were asked to create a program for a fictional competition which had 6 judges. The 6 judges each gave a score of the performance for a competitor in a competition, (i.e a score of 1-10), and we were asked to find the average of those scores, omitting the highest/lowest results. The program was to store the scores into an array, display the scores back to the user via cout, display the highest and lowest scores among the 6 obtained, display the average of the 6 scores, and finally display the average adjusted scores omitting the highest and lowest result.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

CONST
A constant variable was declared and used to initialize the array (line 8). Note, when using static arrays, the program has to know how many elements to initialize the program with before the program starts, so creating a constant variable to do that for us is convenient.

FOR LOOPS
Once again loops were used to traverse the array, as noted on lines 16, 23, 30, 53, and 70. The const variable was also used within the for loops, making it easier to modify the code if its necessary to reduce or increase the number of available judges.

HIGHEST/LOWEST SCORES

This is noted on lines 34-44, and it is really simple to understand the process once you see the code.

OMITTING HIGHEST/LOWEST SCORE

Lines 70-78 highlight this process, and the loop basically traverses the array, skipping over the highest/lowest elements

Once compiled, you should get this as your output:

Judges, enter one score each for
the current competitor: 123 453 -789 2 23345 987

These are the scores from the 6 judges:
The score for judge #1 is: 123
The score for judge #2 is: 453
The score for judge #3 is: -789
The score for judge #4 is: 2
The score for judge #5 is: 23345
The score for judge #6 is: 987

These are the highest and lowest scores:
Highest: 23345
Lowest: -789
The average score is: 4020.17
The average adjusted score omitting the highest and lowest result is: 391.25

C++ || Struct – Add One Second To The Clock Using A Struct

Here is another actual homework assignment which was presented in an intro to programming class. This program utilizes a struct, which is very similar to the class concept. For this assignment, the class was asked to make a program which prompted the user to enter a time in HH:MM:SS (Hours:Minutes:Seconds) format. Upon obtaining the time from the user, our class was asked to use a struct implementation which was to simply add one second to the time that was entered by the user. Seems easy enough, though I initially had afew problems when starting the program.

This page will be very brief in its breakdown of the program’s code, as it is already heavily commented. The code is basically unchanged from the code which was turned in for grading.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Functions
Passing a Value By Reference
Structures
Constant Variables
Boolean Expressions
Setw

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

STRUCT
The structure declaration is placed above the main function, as noted on lines 16-21, containing the 3 variables (Hrs, min, sec) which are defined within the program. Line 39 displays how to access those variables from the main function, having the variable “Time userTime” as the means of access. Note, line 43, the variables can utilize cin for input.

CONST
Lines 25-27 declare the constant variables, which hold the maximum allowable time the clock is able to display. The function IsTimeValid (line 72) checks to see if user defined input is within the maximum allowable limit or not.

FILL
The program will automatically display 2 numbers for hours,mins,sec even if the user only inputted one number, as noted on lines 169-172. This is basically the same as the setfill function.

Once compiling the above code, you should receive this as your output
Note: The code was compiled five separate times to display the different outputs its able to produce

==== SAMPLE RUN #1 ====
Please enter the time in HH:MM:SS format: 0:0:25
The incremented time is 00:00:26

==== SAMPLE RUN #2 ====
Please enter the time in HH:MM:SS format: 23:58:59
The incremented time is 23:59:00

==== SAMPLE RUN #3 ====
Please enter the time in HH:MM:SS format: 23:59:59
The incremented time is 00:00:00

==== SAMPLE RUN #4 ====
Please enter the time in HH:MM:SS format: : :
The incremented time is 00:00:01

==== SAMPLE RUN #5 ====
Please enter the time in HH:MM:SS format: 76:09:67
Invalid input...

C++ || Input/Output Text File Manipulation – Find Highest, Lowest, Average & Total Sum

This is a program which will utilize fstream, specifically ifstream and ofstream, to read in data from one .txt file, and it will then output selected data into an entirely new separate .txt file.

The input data file has 8 different rows, with each row containing 7 numbers on each line. The program will take in each line one at a time, manipulating the 7 numbers to receive the desired output. This program will find the highest/lowest number in each selected line, along with the total sum of all the numbers contained in that line, and the average of all the numbers. So at the end of the program, There will be 8 different sets of data compiled for each row, with the output file looking like this:

SAMPLE RUN:

- Input File -
3 5 7 3 4 5 6

- Output File -
The dataset for input line #1 is: 3 5 7 3 4 5 6
The highest number is: 7
The lowest number is: 3
The total of the numbers is: 33
The average of the numbers is: 4.71

The data file that is used in this example can be downloaded here

Note: In order to read in the data .txt file, you need to save the .txt file in the same directory (or folder) as your .cpp file is saved in. If you are using Visual C++, this directory will be located in

Documents > Visual Studio 2010 > Projects > [Your project name] > [Your project name]

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

LOOPS
This program utilizes one do/while loop on lines 33-91 which loops thru the input file until it reaches the end of the file. This program also uses a for loop, which is noted on line 40.

CALCULATING THE SUM
Line 44 contains the assignment operator “+=“, which will calculate a running total for all the values of each selected line.

READING IN DATA FROM FILE
This is noted in line 42, and works just like a cin statement.

OPENING FILES
File declarations, and the opening of files are highlighted on lines: 7-8, 17-18, 25-26. On line 25, the term “ios::app” means the file will append new data to the text file, instead of overwriting the old data contained within that file.

OUTPUT DATA TO FILE
This is highlighted on lines 74-78, and as you can see, the output statements are exactly the same as cout statements.

CLOSE FILES
Remember to close the files you open, as highlighted on lines 94 and 95.

Once compiling the above code, you should receive this as your output (for the 8 selected lines contained within the input text file)

The dataset for input line #1 is: 346 130 982 90 656 117 595
The highest number is: 982
The lowest number is: 90
The total of the numbers is: 2916
The average of the numbers is: 416.571

The dataset for input line #2 is: 415 948 126 4 558 571 87
The highest number is: 948
The lowest number is: 4
The total of the numbers is: 2709
The average of the numbers is: 387

The dataset for input line #3 is: 42 360 412 721 463 47 119
The highest number is: 721
The lowest number is: 42
The total of the numbers is: 2164
The average of the numbers is: 309.143

The dataset for input line #4 is: 441 190 985 214 509 2 571
The highest number is: 985
The lowest number is: 2
The total of the numbers is: 2912
The average of the numbers is: 416

The dataset for input line #5 is: 77 81 681 651 995 93 74
The highest number is: 995
The lowest number is: 74
The total of the numbers is: 2652
The average of the numbers is: 378.857

The dataset for input line #6 is: 310 9 995 561 92 14 288
The highest number is: 995
The lowest number is: 9
The total of the numbers is: 2269
The average of the numbers is: 324.143

The dataset for input line #7 is: 466 664 892 8 766 34 639
The highest number is: 892
The lowest number is: 8
The total of the numbers is: 3469
The average of the numbers is: 495.571

The dataset for input line #8 is: 151 64 98 813 67 834 369
The highest number is: 834
The lowest number is: 64
The total of the numbers is: 2396
The average of the numbers is: 342.286

We have reached the end of the file!

C++ || Count The Total Number Of Characters, Vowels, & UPPERCASE Letters Contained In A Sentence Using A ‘While Loop’

This program will prompt the user to enter a sentence, then upon entering an “exit code,” will display the total number of uppercase letters, vowels and characters contained within that sentence. This program is very similar to an earlier project, this time, utalizing a while loop, the setw and setfill functions.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted portions are areas of interest.

In order to use the setfill and setw functions, remember to #include iomanip, as noted on line 2.

Notice line 17 contains the while loop declaration. The loop will continually ask the user to input data, and will not stop doing so until the user enters an exit character, and the defined exit character in this program is a period (“.”). So, the program will not stop asking the user to enter data until they enter a period.

Once compiling the above code, you should receive this as your output

Enter a sentence: My Programming Notes Is Awesome.

Total number of upper case letters:.........5
Total number of vowels:....................11
Total number of characters:................27

C++ || Display Today’s Date Using a Switch

If statements, char’s and strings have been previously discussed, and this page will be more of the same. This program will demonstrate how to use a switch to display today’s date, converting from mm/dd/yyyy format to formal format (i.e January 5th, 2012).

This same program can easily be done using if statements, but sometimes that is not always the fastest programming method. Switch statements are like literal light switches because the code “goes down a line” to check to see which case is valid or not, just like if statements. You will see why switches are very effective when used right by examining this program.

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> in order for the code to compile.

====== TODAY’S DATE USING A SWITCH ========

So to start our program out, lets define the variables.

Notice on line 9 there is a variable named “backslah.” This program was designed to display the date in this format.

Enter today's date: 10/7/2008
October 7th, 2008

So the only way to achieve that was to add a “place holder” variable during the user input process, which is demonstrated below.


In line 3, you can see the format that the user will input the data in. They will input data in mm/dd/yyyy format, and having the “backslash” placeholder there will make that possible.

After the user enters in data, how will the program convert numbers into actual text? Next comes the switch statements.


Line 2 contains the switch declaration, and its comparing the variable of “month” to the 12 different cases that is defined within the switch statement. So this piece of code will “go down the line” comparing to see if the user inputted data is any of the numbers, from 1 to 12. If the user inputted a number which does not fall between 1 thru 12, the “default” case will be executed, prompting the user that the data they inputted was invalid, which can be seen in line 64. Notice line 67 has an exit code. This program will force an exit whenever the user enters invalid data.

Line 7 is very important, because that forces the computer to “break” away from the selected case whenever it is done examining the piece of code. It is important to add the break in there to avoid errors, which may result in the program giving you wrong output as the answer.

Next we will add another switch statement to convert the day of the month to have a number suffix (i.e displaying the number in 1st, 2nd, 3rd format). This is very similar to the previous switch statement


This block of code is very similar to the previous one. Line 2 is declaring the variable ‘day’ to be compared with the base cases, line 7 and so forth has the break lines, but line 4, 9 and 14 are different. If you notice, line 4, 9 and 14 are comparing multiple cases in one line. Yes with switch statements, you can do that. Just like you can compare multiple values in if statements, the same cane be done here. So this switch is comparing the number the user inputted, with the base cases, adding a suffix to the end of the number.

So far we have obtained data from the user, compared the month and day using switch statements and displayed that to the screen. Now all we have to do is output the year to the user. This is fairly simple, because the year is not being compared, you are just simply using a cout to display data to the user.

Adding all the code together should give us this


Once compiled, you should get this as your output

Enter today's date: 1/5/2012
January 5th, 2012

C++ || Using If Statements, Char & String Variables

As previously mentioned, you can use the “int/float/double” data type to store numbers. But what if you want to store letters? Char and Strings help you do that.

==== SINGLE CHAR ====

This example will demonstrate a simple program using char, which checks to see if you inputted the correctly predefined letter


Notice in line 6 I declare the char data type, naming it “userInput.” I also initialized it as an empty variable. In line 12 I used an “If/Else Statement” to determine if the user inputted value matches the predefined letter within the program. I also used the “OR” operator in line 12 to determine if the letter the user inputted was lower or uppercase. Try compiling the program simply using this
if (userInput == 'a') as your if statement, and notice the difference.

The resulting code should give this as output

Please try to guess the letter I am thinking of: K
Sorry, that was not the correct letter I was thinking of

==== CHECK IF LETTER IS UPPER CASE ====

This example is similar to the previous one, and will check if a letter is uppercase


Notice in line 12, an If statement was used, which checked to see if the user inputted data fell between letter A and letter Z. We did that by using the “AND” operator. So that IF statement is basically saying (in plain english)

IF ('userInput' is equal to or greater than 'A') AND ('userInput' is equal to or less than 'Z')

THEN it is an uppercase letter

C++ uses ASCII codes to determine letters, so from looking at the table, the letter ‘A’ would equal ASCII code number 65, letter ‘B’ would equal ASCII code number 66 and so forth, until you reach letter Z, which would equal ASCII code number 90. So in literal terms, the program is checking to see if the user input is between ASCII code number 65 thru 90. If it is, then the number is an uppercase letter, otherwise it is not.

The resulting code should give this as output

Please enter an UPPERCASE letter: G
G is an uppercase letter


==== CHECK IF LETTER IS A VOWEL ====

This example will utilize more if statements, checking to see if the user inputted data is a vowel or not. This will be very similar to the previous example, utilizing the OR operator once again.


This program should be very straight forward, and its basically checking to see if the user inputted data is the letter A, E, I, O, U or Y.

The resulting code should give the following output

Please enter a vowel: O
Correct, O is a vowel!

==== HELLO WORLD v2 ====

This last example will demonstrate using the string data type to print the line “Hello World!” to the screen.


Notice in line 2 we have to add “#include string” in order to use the getline function, which is used on line 10. Rather than just simply using the “cin” function, we used the getline function instead to read in data. That is because cin is unable to read entire sentences as input. So in line 10, the following code reads a line from the user input until a newline is entered.

The resulting code should give following output

Please enter a sentence: Hello World!
You Entered: Hello World!

C++ || Simple Math Using Int & Float

This page will display the use of int and float data types. Note: you can (obviously) add as many int’s together as you wish, not just two.

==== ADDING TWO NUMBERS TOGETHER ====

To add two numbers together, you will have to first declare your variables by doing something like this.


Notice in lines 5-7, I declared my variables, giving them a name. You can name your variables anything you want, with a rule of thumb as naming them something meaningful to your code (i.e avoid giving your variables arbitrary names like “x” or “y”). In line 15 the actual math process is taking place, storing the sum of “num1” and “num2” in a variable called “sum.” I also initialized my variables to zero. You should always initialize your variables.

the resulting code should give you the following output:

Please enter the first number: 8
Please enter the second number: 24
The sum of 8 and 24 is: 32

==== SUBTRACTING TWO NUMBERS ====

Subtracting two ints works the same way as the above code, and we would only need to edit the above code in one place to achieve that. In line 15, replace the addition symbol with a subtraction sign, and you should have something like this


The above code should give you the following output

Please enter the first number: 8
Please enter the second number: 24
The difference between 8 and 24 is: -16

==== MULTIPLYING TWO NUMBERS ====

This can be achieved the same way as the 2 previous methods, simply by editing line 15, and replacing the designated math operator with the star symbol “*.”


The above code should give you the following output

Please enter the first number: 8
Please enter the second number: 24
The product of 8 and 24 is: 192

==== DIVIDING TWO NUMBERS TOGETHER ====

This one is a little different from the other three. Before we would use int variables to store our data. In division, when you divide numbers together, sometimes they end in decimals. Int data types can not store decimal data (try it yourself and see), so here is where we use the float data type (you can also use the “double” data type here aswell).

So the resulting code will basically be the same as the other previous three, only instead of our variables being of type int, they will be of type float.


The above code should give the following output

Please enter the first number: 8
Please enter the second number: 24
The quotient of 8 and 24 is: 0.333333

==== MODULUS ====

If you wanted to capture the remainder of the quotient you calculated from the above code, you would use the modulus operator (%).

From the above code, you would only need to edit line 15, from division, to modulus.


The above code should give the following output

Please enter the first number: 24
Please enter the second number: 8
The remainder of 24 and 8 is: 0