Tag Archives: pipe

C++ || Snippet – How To Use Message Queues For Interprocess Communication

The following is sample code which demonstrates the use of the msgsnd, msgrcv, and msgget function calls for use with message queues on Unix based systems.

Message queues are used for interprocess communication. They provide two (or more) separate programs (i.e: sender and receiver) with the ability to interact with eachother. This is ideal because the sender and receiver do not need to interact with the message queue at the same time. Messages can be sent at one point in time, be placed on the queue until the receiver is ready for it, and then be removed at another point in time when the program(s) that service the queue are finally ready to receive a message.

This concept is different from threaded and forked process IPC procedures, which often times process data in a more streamlined manner. Rather than following a strict pattern as to when data is to be sent and received, queuing is a mechanism in which messages are held until the receiving application is ready to process them.

The example on this page demonstrates the above use of a message queue to transferrer data between two separate programs. The sending program (client.cpp) sends an integer and string variable to the receiving program (server.cpp), which then displays that received data to the screen.

NOTE: The server program must be ran before the client program!

=== 1. Server.cpp (Receiver) ===

=== 2. Client.cpp (Sender) ===


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

You can view all allocated message queues using the ipcs command. You can delete a message queue from command line using ipcrm -q [KEY SHOWN BY IPCS]. Message queues are a finite resource. If something goes wrong during the execution of your program, you must manually delete all your queues.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

The following is sample output.

SERVER OUTPUT:

The server has started!

Waiting for someone to connect to server id #753664 with the key 1258295474

someNumber = 0 buff = Message queues are awesome!
someNumber = 1 buff = Message queues are awesome!
someNumber = 2 buff = Message queues are awesome!
someNumber = 3 buff = Message queues are awesome!
someNumber = 4 buff = Message queues are awesome!
someNumber = 5 buff = Message queues are awesome!
someNumber = 6 buff = Message queues are awesome!
someNumber = 7 buff = Message queues are awesome!
someNumber = 8 buff = Message queues are awesome!
someNumber = 9 buff = Message queues are awesome!

Server is now shutting down!

CLIENT OUTPUT:

Successfully connected to server id #753664 with the key 1258295474

Now sending messages....Sending complete!

C++ || Multi-Hash Interprocess Communication Using Fork, Popen, & Pipes

The following is another homework assignment which was presented in an Operating Systems Concepts class. Using two pipes, the following is a program which implements the computing of hash values on a file using the MD5, SHA1, SHA224, SHA256, SHA384, and SHA512 hashing algorithms provided on Unix based systems.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

How To Use Fork
How To Use Pipe
How To Use Popen

==== 1. OVERVIEW ====

Hash algorithms map large data sets of variable length (e.g. files), to data sets of a fixed length. For example, the contents of a 1GB file may be hashed into a single 128-bit integer. Many hash algorithms exhibit an important property called an avalanche effect – slight changes in the input data trigger significant changes in the hash value.

Hash algorithms are often used for verifying the integrity of files downloaded from the WEB. For example, websites hosting a file usually post the hash value of the file using the MD5 hash algorithm. By doing this, the user can then verify the integrity of the downloaded file by computing the MD5 algorithm on their own, and compare their hash value against the hash value posted on the website. The user will know if the download was valid only if the two hash values match.

==== 2. TECHNICAL DETAILS ====

The following implements a program for computing the hash value of a file using the MD5, SHA1, SHA224, SHA256, SHA384, and SHA512 hashing algorithms provided on Unix based systems.

This program takes the name of the target file being analyzed as a command line argument, and does the following:

1. Check to make sure the file exists.
2. Create two pipes.
3. Create a child process.
4. The parent transmits the name of the file to the child (over the first pipe).
5. The child receives the name of the file and computes the hash of the file using the MD5 algorithm (using Linux program md5sum).
6. The child transmits the computed hash to the parent (over the second pipe) and terminates.
7. The parent receives the hash, prints it, and calls wait().
8. Repeat the same process starting with step 3, but using algorithms SHA1...SHA512.
9. The parent terminates after all hashes have been computed.

The use of the popen function is used in order to launch the above programs and capture their output into a character array buffer.

This program also uses two pipes. The two pipes created are the following:

(1) Parent to child pipe: Used by the parent to transfer the name of the file to the child. The parent writes to this pipe and the child reads it.

(2) Child to parent pipe: Used by the child to transfer the computed hashes to the parent. The child writes to this pipe and the parent reads it.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Using the following example input file located here, the following is sample output:

C++ || Snippet – How To Use Fork & Pipe For Interprocess Communication

The following is sample code which demonstrates the use of the fork, read, and write function calls for use with pipes on Unix based systems.

A pipe is a mechanism for interprocess communication. Data written to a pipe by one process can be read by another process. Creating a pipe is achieved by using the pipe function, which creates both the reading and writing ends of the pipe file descriptor.

In typical use, a parent process creates a pipe just before it forks one or more child processes. The pipe is then used for communication between either the parent or child processes, or between two sibling processes.

A real world example of this kind of communication can be seen in all operating system terminal shells. When you type a command in a shell, it will spawn the executable represented by that command with a call to fork. A pipe is opened to the new child process, and its output is read and printed by the terminal.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

The following is sample output:

Parent is forking a child.
Parent is now waiting for child id #12776 to complete..

Starting the child process..

Message from the parent via the pipe: Greetings From Your Parent!

Program is now exiting...

The child process is complete and has terminated!

Program is now exiting...