Tag Archives: Output

Java || Snippet – How To Read & Write Data From A File

This page will consist of a demonstration of a simple quadratic formula program, which highlights the use of the input/output mechanisms of manipulating a text file. This program will read in data from a file (numbers), manipulate that data, and output new data into a different text file.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS SNIPPET

Try/Catch - What Is It?
The "Math" Class - sqrt and pow
The "Scanner" Class - Used for the input file
The "FileWriter" Class - Used for the output file
The "File" Class - Used to locate the input/output files
Working With Files

NOTE: The data file that is used in this example can be downloaded here.

In order to read in the data .txt file, you need to save the .txt file in the same directory (or folder) as your .java file is saved in. If you are using Eclipse, the default directory will probably be:


Documents > Workspace > [Your project name]

Alternatively, you can execute this command, which will give you the current directory in which your source file resides:


System.out.println(System.getProperty("user.dir"));

Whatever the case, in order to read in the data .txt file, your program must know where it is located on the system.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output
(Remember to include the example input file)

Welcome to My Programming Notes' Java Program.

For the numbers:
a = 2.0
b = 4.0
c = -16.0

root 1 = 2.0
root 2 = -4.0

Program Success!!

C++ || Snippet – How To Swap Two Numbers Without Using A Third “Temporary” Variable

The following are three programs which demonstrates how to swap two numbers without using a third “temporary” variable.

Why would anyone want to swap two numbers without utilizing a third variable? There is no real reason to do so other than the fact that exercises such as these are typically used as programming assignments/interview questions. This is a technique that’s rarely ever practical in a real world setting, but it is still an interesting task nonetheless.

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

Please enter two numbers: 7 28

Item #1 = 7
Item #2 = 28

Switching the numbers..

Item #1 = 28
Item #2 = 7


SAMPLE OUTPUT:

Please enter two numbers: 5 12453

Item #1 = 5
Item #2 = 12453

Switching the numbers..

Item #1 = 12453
Item #2 = 5


SAMPLE OUTPUT:

Please enter two numbers: 2132 6547546

Item #1 = 2132
Item #2 = 6547546

Switching the numbers..

Item #1 = 6547546
Item #2 = 2132

Assembly || How To Obtain & Display Integer Data

Displaying text to the screen was discussed in the previous article, and this page will be more of the same. Utilizing the printf and scanf functions which are available in C, this page will demonstrate how to obtain and display integer data; and more importantly, demonstrate how to store a 64-bit integer into an assembly program.

==== Obtain & Display Integer Data ====

Here is our driver.c file, which starts things off.

The “driver” file really only has one task, and that is simply to call the assembly function named ‘DisplayNum()’ as noted on line 38. This is a routine that is present among all the code on this site. Click here for an explanation on why a “driver” is used.

And here is the assembly file.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The text declarations highlighted under the segment .data section are important, particularly the variable named “unsignedLongIntegerInput.” That variable is used to obtain data from the user, as noted on line 74-77. Note, that this same variable is also used to display the integer data back to the user, which is also displayed on lines 86-89.

The rest of the code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

After you assemble the above code (see below), you should get this as your output:

Welcome to My Programming Notes' Assembly Program.

Control will now be passed to the Assembly file...

--------------------------------------------
Please enter a number: 1858
The number you just entered is: 1858
--------------------------------------------

Control has now been passed back from the Assembly file to the C file!

The return code is: 0

BYE!

==== ASSEMBLING THE CODE ====

This can be achieved by simply opening the teminal, and doing a copy/paste of the commands listed on the ‘driver.c’ file, lines 15 thru 18. Make sure to compile them in order for the sake of continuity.


Be advised, that the commands to assemble the code is designed to run in 64-bit mode. If you are not running a 64-bit machine, the commands will most likely fail to assemble.

If you are running a Windows computer and would like to assemble the code, look here or here for information.

You will need to change the 64-bit registers to 32-bit registers in the “displayNum.asm” file, aswell as removing lines 41-55 and lines 106-120 respectively in order to run the program successfully.

Assembly || Hello World!

This page will consist of creating the typical “hello world!” application. if you have never programmed in assembly before, this will be very interesting as the syntax is very different from most high level programming languages.

As noted on the introductory page, the assembly code presented on this site (X86-64) was assembled using The Netwide Assembler (NASM) under the Unix platform (Ubuntu) in association with C/C++ files. The purpose of combining Assembly code in association with C/C++ files is to demonstrate how each language “talks” to each other. Also, more importantly it is because today, it is unusual to create a stand alone program written completely in assembly language. Why is that the case? Because It is much easier and faster to program in a high level language than it is in assembly. So why should you learn assembly? Learning assembly can be most useful to help one gain a deeper understanding of how computers work, aswell as helping one to better understand how compilers and higher level languages like C work.

==== HELLO WORLD ====

All of the programs presented on this site will start with a simple C or C++ driver program like so:

The “driver” file really only has one task, and that is simply to call the assembly function named ‘DisplayHelloWorld()’ as noted on line 39. This is a routine that will be present among all the code on this site.

There are several advantages in using the C driver routine. First, this lets the C system set up the program to run correctly in protected mode. All the segments and their corresponding segment registers will be initialized by C. The assembly code doesn’t need to worry about any of this. Secondly, the C library will also be available to be used by the assembly code.

The following shows a simple assembly program utilizing the C function “printf” to display ‘Hello World’ to the screen.


Line 16 of the program defines a section that specifies memory to be stored in the data segment (whose name is .data). Only initialized data should be defined in this segment. On lines 19 to 21, several strings are declared. They will be printed with the C library, so they must be terminated with a null character (ASCII code 0). Remember there is a big difference between 0 and ’0’. Note, the number 10 is the ASCII code for a newline.

Uninitialized data should be declared in the .bss segment (named .bss on line 25). This segment gets its name from an early UNIX-based assembler operator that meant “block started by symbol.”

The code segment named .text is where instructions are placed. Note that if you are using Windows, the code label for the main routine (line 29 and 33) should have an underscore prefix, so it would be _DisplayHelloWorld. You would also need to do the same for printf (so it would be _printf). This is part of the C calling convention. This convention specifies the rules C uses when compiling code. It is very important to know this convention when interfacing C and assembly. (Note: This rule is specifically for DOS/Windows, the Linux C compiler does not prepend anything to C symbol names.)

The global directive on line 29 tells the assembler to make the asm main label global. Unlike in C, labels have internal scope by default. This means that only code in the same module can use the label. The global directive gives the specified label (or labels) external scope.

And there you have it! After you assemble the above code (see below), you should get this as your output

Welcome to My Programming Notes' Assembly Program.

Control will now be passed to the Assembly file...

--------------------------------------------
Hello World!
--------------------------------------------

Control has now been passed back from the Assembly file to the C file!

The return code is: 0

BYE!

==== ASSEMBLING THE CODE ====

This can be achieved by simply opening the teminal, and doing a copy/paste of the commands listed on the ‘driver.c’ file, lines 16 thru 19. Make sure to compile them in order for the sake of continuity.


Be advised, that the commands to assemble the code is designed to run in 64-bit mode. If you are not running a 64-bit machine, the commands will most likely fail to assemble.

If you are running a Windows computer and would like to assemble the code, look here or here for information.

You will need to change the 64-bit registers to 32-bit registers in the “helloWorld.asm” file, aswell as removing lines 38-52 and lines 80-94 respectively in order to run the program successfully.

C++ || Char Array – Palindrome Checker Using A Character Array, ToUpper, Strlen, Strcpy, & Strcmp

The following is a palindrome checking program, which demonstrates more use of char array’s, ToUpper, Strlen, & Strcmp.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Character Arrays
Cin.getline
How to convert text in a char array from lower to uppercase
How to reverse a character array
Palindrome - What is it?
Strlen
Strcpy
Strcmp
While Loops
For Loops
Constant Variables
Setw

Using a constant value, by default, this program first asks the user to enter 5 words and/or sentences that they want to compare for similarity. If the text which was entered into the program is a palindrome, the program will prompt a message to the user via cout. This program determines similarity by using the strcmp function, to compare two arrays together. This program also demonstrates how to reverse a character array, aswell as demonstrates how to convert all the text which was placed into the char array from lower to UPPERCASE.

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib>, #include < cctype>, and #include < cstring> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

Click here to see how cin.getline works.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output
(Note: The code was compiled 2 seperate times to demonstrate different output)

====== RUN 1 ======

Welcome to the Palindrome Check System!
Please enter 5 word(s) to check for similarity:
#1: SteP oN nO PEts
#2: My ProGramminG NoTeS
#3: RaTs liVE ON No eViL StaR
#4: ABLe wAs I ErE I sAw ElBa
#5: LiVE Non Evil

------------------------------------------------------------
This is what you entered into the system:
Text #1: SteP oN nO PEts
Text #2: My ProGramminG NoTeS
Text #3: RaTs liVE ON No eViL StaR
Text #4: ABLe wAs I ErE I sAw ElBa
Text #5: LiVE Non Evil

------------------------------------------------------------
Here are the palindrome's:
Text #1: SteP oN nO PEts is a palindrome
Text #3: RaTs liVE ON No eViL StaR is a palindrome
Text #4: ABLe wAs I ErE I sAw ElBa is a palindrome
Text #5: LiVE Non Evil is a palindrome

====== RUN 2 ======

Welcome to the Palindrome Check System!
Please enter 5 word(s) to check for similarity:
#1: today Is Great
#2: Tomorrow is Foriegn
#3: Sunday Brunch
#4: Hello SkiPper
#5: Mayday Ship DowN!

------------------------------------------------------------
This is what you entered into the system:
Text #1: today Is Great
Text #2: Tomorrow is Foriegn
Text #3: Sunday Brunch
Text #4: Hello SkiPper
Text #5: Mayday Ship DowN!

------------------------------------------------------------
Here are the palindrome's:
There were no palindrome's found in the current list!

C++ || Snippet – How To Read & Write Data From A File

This page will consist of a demonstration of a simple quadratic formula program, which highlights the use of the input/output mechanisms of manipulating a text file. This program will read in data from a file (numbers), manipulate that data, and output new data into a different text file.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS SNIPPET

Fstream
Ifstream
Ofstream
Working With Files

NOTE: The data file that is used in this example can be downloaded here.

Also, in order to read in the data .txt file, you need to save the .txt file in the same directory (or folder) as your .cpp file is saved in. If you are using Visual C++, this directory will be located in

Documents > Visual Studio 2010 > Projects > [Your project name] > [Your project name]


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output

For the numbers
a = 2
b = 4
c = -16

root 1 = 2
root 2 = -4

C++ || Dynamic Arrays – Create A Music Strore Database Which Sorts CD Information & Display Grand Total

This program was presented as a homework assignment in a programming class to demonstrate the use of dynamic arrays, and pointer variables. The pointer variables which are displayed in this program are very excessive; and many are not needed, but it was good practice when trying to understand the logic behind it all.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Pointer Variables
Dynamic Arrays
2-D Dynamic Arrays - How To Declare
Bubble Sort
While Loops
For Loops
Constant Variables
Functions
Switch Statements
Toupper
Strcpy
Strcmp

This is an interactive program, which simulates a database for a music store, in which the user inputs data into the program (artist, CD title, genre, sales price, tax) and stores that information into multiple dynamic arrays (2-D and/or one dimensional dynamic arrays). The program will also apply any discounts that may currently be available for the selected CD genre, and applies that discount to the current CD information. When the user chooses to quit, the program will sort any data which is currently stored inside the array (by artist) in ascending order, and output the subtotal, tax applied, and grand total for all of the CD information which is entered into the array to the user.

After the program is complete, it will display a summary of the data which was stored into the array like so:

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> and #include < cstring> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output

Welcome to the CD Management System!
From the following menu, select an option

E - Enter new CD information into the database
D - Display the current information in the database
Q - Quit

>> e

Enter the name of the artist: Nm8
Enter the title of the CD: CD8
Enter the genre: Rock
Enter the sales price $12.99
Enter the sales tax: .098
Do you want to enter more CD's? (y/n): y

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the CD Management System!
From the following menu, select an option

E - Enter new CD information into the database
D - Display the current information in the database
Q - Quit

>> e

Enter the name of the artist: Nm7
Enter the title of the CD: CD7
Enter the genre: Country
Enter the sales price $10.99
Enter the sales tax: .078
Do you want to enter more CD's? (y/n): y

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the CD Management System!
From the following menu, select an option

E - Enter new CD information into the database
D - Display the current information in the database
Q - Quit

>> e

Enter the name of the artist: Nm6
Enter the title of the CD: CD6
Enter the genre: Pop
Enter the sales price $11.50
Enter the sales tax: .067
Do you want to enter more CD's? (y/n): y

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the CD Management System!
From the following menu, select an option

E - Enter new CD information into the database
D - Display the current information in the database
Q - Quit

>> e

Enter the name of the artist: Nm5
Enter the title of the CD: CD5
Enter the genre: Jazz
Enter the sales price $12.24
Enter the sales tax: .045
Do you want to enter more CD's? (y/n): y

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the CD Management System!
From the following menu, select an option

E - Enter new CD information into the database
D - Display the current information in the database
Q - Quit

>> e

Enter the name of the artist: Nm4
Enter the title of the CD: CD4
Enter the genre: Other
Enter the sales price $12.99
Enter the sales tax: .094
Do you want to enter more CD's? (y/n): y

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the CD Management System!
From the following menu, select an option

E - Enter new CD information into the database
D - Display the current information in the database
Q - Quit

>> e

Enter the name of the artist: Nm3
Enter the title of the CD: CD3
Enter the genre: Classical
Enter the sales price $11.45
Enter the sales tax: .078
Do you want to enter more CD's? (y/n): y

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the CD Management System!
From the following menu, select an option

E - Enter new CD information into the database
D - Display the current information in the database
Q - Quit

>> e

Enter the name of the artist: Nm2
Enter the title of the CD: CD2
Enter the genre: International
Enter the sales price $10.99
Enter the sales tax: .093
Do you want to enter more CD's? (y/n): y

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the CD Management System!
From the following menu, select an option

E - Enter new CD information into the database
D - Display the current information in the database
Q - Quit

>> e

Enter the name of the artist: Nm1
Enter the title of the CD: CD1
Enter the genre: Rap
Enter the sales price $12.99
Enter the sales tax: .0975
Do you want to enter more CD's? (y/n): n

C++ || Input/Output – Using An Array, Sort Names From a Text File & Save The Sorted Names To A New Text File

Since we previously discussed how to sort numbers which is contained in an integer array, it is only fitting that we display a program which sorts characters that are stored in a character array.

This is an interactive program which first displays a menu to the user, allowing them to choose from 6 different modes of operation. The 6 options are described as followed:

R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

From the available choices, the user has the option of reading in names from a file, manually entering in names themselves, displaying the current names in the array, sorting the current names in the array, clearing the current names in the array, and finally quitting the program. When the user chooses to quit the program, whatever data which is currently stored within the array will automatically be saved to the output text file.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Fstream
Ifstream
Ofstream
Character Arrays
2D Arrays
Working With Files
Pass By Reference
While Loops
For Loops
Bubble Sort
Functions
Switch Statements
Boolean Expressions
Toupper
Strcpy
Strcmp

The data file that is used in this example can be downloaded here.

Note: In order to read in the data .txt file, you need to save the .txt file in the same directory (or folder) as your .cpp file is saved in. If you are using Visual C++, this directory will be located in

Documents > Visual Studio 2010 > Projects > [Your project name] > [Your project name]

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> and #include < cstring> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output
(Remember to include the input file)

Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> d

The array is currently empty!

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> q

The array contained no names.
There was no data to save to the output file...

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> e

Please enter the number of names you want to sort: 3

Please enter 3 names

Name #1: My
Name #2: Programming
Name #3: Notes

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> d

The values in the array are:
My
Programming
Notes

There is currently 3 names in the array!

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> s

Sorting the names contained in the array...
Success!
------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> d

The values in the array are:
My
Notes
Programming

There is currently 3 names in the array!

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> c

Deleting the data contained in the array...
Clearing Complete!
------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> r

Reading in data from the file...
Success!
------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> d

The values in the array are:
My
Programming
Notes
C++
Java
Assembly
Lemon
Dark
Light
Black
High
Low
Cellphone
Cat
Dog
Penguin
Japan
Peace
Love
Color
White
One
Brain
Eggplant
Phalanx
Countenance
Crayons
Ben
Dover
Eileen
Bob
Downe
Justin
Elizebeth
Rick
Rolled
Sam
Widge
Liza
Destruction
Grove
Aardvark
Primal
Sushi
Victoria
Ostrich
Zebra
Scrumptious
Carbohydrate
Sulk
Ecstatic
Acrobat
Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis
English
Kenneth
Jessica
Pills
Pencil
Dragon
Mint
Chocolate
Temperature
Cheese
Rondo
Silicon
Scabbiest
Palpitate
Invariable
Henpecked
Titmouse
Canoodle
Boobies
Pressure
Density
Cards
Twiat
Tony
Pink
Green
Yellow
Duck
Dodge
Movie
Zoo
Xiomara
Eggs
Marshmallows
Umbrella
Apple
Panda
Brush
Handle
Door
Knob
Mask
Knife
Speaker
Wood
Orient
Love

There is currently 100 names in the array!

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> s

Sorting the names contained in the array...
Success!
------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> d

The values in the array are:
Aardvark
Acrobat
Apple
Assembly
Ben
Black
Bob
Boobies
Brain
Brush
C++
Canoodle
Carbohydrate
Cards
Cat
Cellphone
Cheese
Chocolate
Color
Countenance
Crayons
Dark
Density
Destruction
Dodge
Dog
Door
Dover
Downe
Dragon
Duck
Ecstatic
Eggplant
Eggs
Eileen
Elizebeth
English
Green
Grove
Handle
Henpecked
High
Invariable
Japan
Java
Jessica
Justin
Kenneth
Knife
Knob
Lemon
Light
Liza
Love
Love
Low
Marshmallows
Mask
Mint
Movie
My
Notes
One
Orient
Ostrich
Palpitate
Panda
Peace
Pencil
Penguin
Phalanx
Pills
Pink
Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis
Pressure
Primal
Programming
Rick
Rolled
Rondo
Sam
Scabbiest
Scrumptious
Silicon
Speaker
Sulk
Sushi
Temperature
Titmouse
Tony
Twiat
Umbrella
Victoria
White
Widge
Wood
Xiomara
Yellow
Zebra
Zoo

There is currently 100 names in the array!

------------------------------------------------------------
Welcome to the name sorting program...
From the following menu, select an option
R - Read in names from a file for sorting
E - Enter in names manually for sorting
D - Display the current names in the array
S - Sort the current names in the array
C - Clear the current names in the array
Q - Quit

>> q

Saving the current contents of the array to the ouptut file..
Success!

C++ || Input/Output – Find The Average of The Numbers Contained In a Text File Using an Array/Bubble Sort

This program highlights more practice using text files and arrays. This program is very similar to one which was previously discussed on this site, but unlike that program, this implementation omits the highest/lowest values which are found within the array via a sort.

The previously discussed program works almost as well as the current implementation, but where it fails is when the data which is being entered into the program contains multiple values of the same type. For example, using the previously discussed method to obtain the average by omitting the highest/lowest entries found within an array, if the array contained the numbers:

1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 2, 2, 1

The previous implementation would mark 1 as being the lowest number (which is correct) and it would mark 3 as being the highest number (which is also correct). The area where it fails is when it omits the highest and lowest scores found within the array. The program will skip over ALL of the numbers contained within the array which equal to 1 and 3, thus resulting in the program obtaining the wrong answer.

To illustrate, before the previous program computes its adjusted average scores, it will not only omit just 1 and 3 from the array, but it will also omit all of the 1’s and 3’s from the list, resulting in our array looking like this:

2, 2, 2

When you are finding the average of a list of numbers by omitting the highest/lowest scores, you don’t want to omit ALL of the values which may equal said numbers, but merely just the highest (last element in the array) and lowest (first element in the array) scores.

So if the previous implementation has subtle issues, why is it on this site? The previous program illustrates very well the process of finding the highest/lowest integers found within an array. It also works flawlessly for data in which there is non repeating values found within a list (i.e 1,2,3,4,5,23,6). So if you know you are reading in from a file in which there are non repeating values, the previous implementation works well. Often times though, developers do not know what type of data the incoming files will contain, so this current implementation is a better way to go, especially if it is not known exactly how many numbers are contained within a file.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Fstream
Ifstream
Ofstream
Working With Files
While Loops
For Loops
Bubble Sort
Basic Math - Finding The Average

The data file that is used in this example can be downloaded here.

Note: In order to read in the data .txt file, you need to save the .txt file in the same directory (or folder) as your .cpp file is saved in. If you are using Visual C++, this directory will be located in

Documents > Visual Studio 2010 > Projects > [Your project name] > [Your project name]

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output
(Remember to include the input file)

The numbers countained in the input file are: 12, 45, 23, 46, 11, -5, 23, 33, 50, 17, 13, 25, 15, 50,
The highest and lowest numbers contained in the file are:
Highest: 50
Lowest: -5

The average of the 14 numbers contained in the file is: 25.5714
The average of the 14 numbers contained in the file omitting the highest and lowest scores is: 26.0833

C++ || Struct – Add One Day To Today’s Date Using A Struct

This program displays more practice using the structure data type, and is very similar to another program which was previously discussed here.

REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE FOR THIS PROGRAM

Functions
Passing a Value By Reference
Integer Arrays
Structures
Constant Variables
Boolean Expressions

This program utilizes a struct, which is very similar to the class concept. This program first prompts the user to enter the current date in mm/dd/yyyy format. Upon obtaining the date from the user, the program then uses a struct implementation to simply add one day to the date which was entered by the user. If the day that was entered into the program by the user falls on the end of the month, the program will”roll over” the incremented date into the next month. If the user enters 12/31/2012, the program will “roll over” the incremented date into the next calendar year.

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

The code is heavily commented, so no further insight is necessary. If you have any questions, feel free to leave a comment below.

Once compiled, you should get this as your output:
Note: The code was compiled 6 separate times to display the different outputs its able to produce

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 1/18/2012
The next day is 1/19/2012
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 7/31/2012
The next day is 8/1/2012
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 2/28/2012
The next day is 3/1/2012
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 13/5/2012
Invalid input...
Program exiting....
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 2/31/2012
Invalid day input - There is no such date for the selected month.
Program exiting....
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Please enter today's date in mm/dd/yyyy format: 12/31/2012
The next day is 1/1/2013

C++ || Input/Output Text File Manipulation – Find Highest, Lowest, Average & Total Sum

This is a program which will utilize fstream, specifically ifstream and ofstream, to read in data from one .txt file, and it will then output selected data into an entirely new separate .txt file.

The input data file has 8 different rows, with each row containing 7 numbers on each line. The program will take in each line one at a time, manipulating the 7 numbers to receive the desired output. This program will find the highest/lowest number in each selected line, along with the total sum of all the numbers contained in that line, and the average of all the numbers. So at the end of the program, There will be 8 different sets of data compiled for each row, with the output file looking like this:

SAMPLE RUN:

- Input File -
3 5 7 3 4 5 6

- Output File -
The dataset for input line #1 is: 3 5 7 3 4 5 6
The highest number is: 7
The lowest number is: 3
The total of the numbers is: 33
The average of the numbers is: 4.71

The data file that is used in this example can be downloaded here

Note: In order to read in the data .txt file, you need to save the .txt file in the same directory (or folder) as your .cpp file is saved in. If you are using Visual C++, this directory will be located in

Documents > Visual Studio 2010 > Projects > [Your project name] > [Your project name]

NOTE: On some compilers, you may have to add #include < cstdlib> in order for the code to compile.


QUICK NOTES:
The highlighted lines are sections of interest to look out for.

LOOPS
This program utilizes one do/while loop on lines 33-91 which loops thru the input file until it reaches the end of the file. This program also uses a for loop, which is noted on line 40.

CALCULATING THE SUM
Line 44 contains the assignment operator “+=“, which will calculate a running total for all the values of each selected line.

READING IN DATA FROM FILE
This is noted in line 42, and works just like a cin statement.

OPENING FILES
File declarations, and the opening of files are highlighted on lines: 7-8, 17-18, 25-26. On line 25, the term “ios::app” means the file will append new data to the text file, instead of overwriting the old data contained within that file.

OUTPUT DATA TO FILE
This is highlighted on lines 74-78, and as you can see, the output statements are exactly the same as cout statements.

CLOSE FILES
Remember to close the files you open, as highlighted on lines 94 and 95.

Once compiling the above code, you should receive this as your output (for the 8 selected lines contained within the input text file)

The dataset for input line #1 is: 346 130 982 90 656 117 595
The highest number is: 982
The lowest number is: 90
The total of the numbers is: 2916
The average of the numbers is: 416.571

The dataset for input line #2 is: 415 948 126 4 558 571 87
The highest number is: 948
The lowest number is: 4
The total of the numbers is: 2709
The average of the numbers is: 387

The dataset for input line #3 is: 42 360 412 721 463 47 119
The highest number is: 721
The lowest number is: 42
The total of the numbers is: 2164
The average of the numbers is: 309.143

The dataset for input line #4 is: 441 190 985 214 509 2 571
The highest number is: 985
The lowest number is: 2
The total of the numbers is: 2912
The average of the numbers is: 416

The dataset for input line #5 is: 77 81 681 651 995 93 74
The highest number is: 995
The lowest number is: 74
The total of the numbers is: 2652
The average of the numbers is: 378.857

The dataset for input line #6 is: 310 9 995 561 92 14 288
The highest number is: 995
The lowest number is: 9
The total of the numbers is: 2269
The average of the numbers is: 324.143

The dataset for input line #7 is: 466 664 892 8 766 34 639
The highest number is: 892
The lowest number is: 8
The total of the numbers is: 3469
The average of the numbers is: 495.571

The dataset for input line #8 is: 151 64 98 813 67 834 369
The highest number is: 834
The lowest number is: 64
The total of the numbers is: 2396
The average of the numbers is: 342.286

We have reached the end of the file!

C++ || Hello World!

This page will consist of creating the typical “hello world!” application. First, you will need to create a blank project. I am using Visual C++, but any compiler will do. When you have everything loaded up, you will start your code off by entering the headers like so into your .cpp file.

The first line’s name stands for Input/Output Stream, and overall, these header files are used to handle the input/output process within your program.

Next, you are going to add the main function. This will generally look something like this

Adding the line of “return 0” is an exit code, and will tell the computer that your program executed without errors.

We are halfway finished, now all we have to do is say hello to the world! You will do that by adding this line of code to your program, which basically outputs data to the screen

Notice you need to add double quotes around the text you wish to output to the screen. Also, I added a line break, also knowns as “endl;” into my function. This basically is like the <_br> tag in HTML.

So when you add everything together, your full code will look something like this

And there you have it. After you compile the above code (by pressing CTRL + F5 in Visual C++), you should get this as your output

Hello World